The Nile

The Nile, interminable from the east of Africa, the longest the world. From the Lake Victoria, in central equatorial Africa, it(he) passes by northward and crosses Uganda, Sudan and Egypt on a distance of   5 584 km, to throw(cast) itself into the Mediterranean Sea. Since its most distant source, the river Luvironza ( Burundi), the length the Nile is   6 671 km. The hydrographic pond is 3 350 000 km2   . The average debit(output) is 3 000 m3 / @  .

Luvironza is one of the superior branches of the river Kagera, situated in Tanzania. Kagera goes along(follows) the border of Rwanda in the direction of the North, by-passes the border of Uganda and throws(casts) itself into the lake Victoria, which is at a height of 1 134   m over the sea level. Taken out of the lake Victoria by the falls Ripon, today submerged, the Nile continues its journey(running) on  480 km, crossing steep, fast regions and cataracts(waterfalls), first of all in the direction of the northwest, then western, to throw(cast) itself into the lake Albert. The part(party) of the river situated between both lakes takes the name of the Nile Victoria. By leaving the North of the lake Albert, the Nile takes then the name of the Nile Albert and crosses the north part(party) of Uganda. On the Sudanese border, it(he) takes Bahr's al-Djebel name and, in its(his) confluence with the river Bahr al-Ghazal, the Nile becomes Bahr el-Abiad, or the White Nile. Several tributaries join in the region of Bahr al-Ghazal. In Khartum, the White Nile is joined by the Blue Nile, or Bahr al-Azrak. All owe their name to the colour of their water. The Nile blue, 1 530 km long  , is largely furnished thanks to the lake You ana, situated in the hills of Ethiopia, where it is known under the name of lake Abbai. From Khartum, the river passes by in the direction of the northeast?;  320 km after Khartum, he is joined by the river Atbarah ( Atbara), the black alluviums transported by Atbarah settle in the delta of the Nile, returning him(it) extremely fertile. The Nile crosses then Nubie's desert, in Sahara, by drawing two wide buckles. In the North of Khartum, the navigation becomes very dangerous because of cataracts(waterfalls), numbered from 1 to 6, the first of which is situated in the North of Khartum and the sixth near Assouan. The Nile enters Egypt and is transformed into an immense lake, a lake Nasser, which is more than  500 km in length. This lake, consequence of the construction of Assouan's dam, pulled(entailed) the flood of several antique monuments and required the movement of Abou-Simbel's temples. Been supposed to be Assouan, the Nile pours into a narrow and fertile valley, very densément populated, a site of numerous monuments, notably to Louksor and to Thebes. The Nile reaches(affects)  Cairo, capital of Egypt, then throws(casts) itself  150 km farther into the Mediterranean Sea by a delta which divides him(it) into two parts(parties), Bow and Damiette, where is notably the port(bearing) of Alexandria.

Quite as the Tiger, the Euphrates and the Indus, the lower class(course) of the Nile sheltered one of the most former(old) civilizations of the world. The annual floods made surrounding plains very fertile. The peoples of Ancient(former) Egypt had become established along its banks?; the region became indeed their main artery of communication and trades, while remaining the center of their spiritual life. To see Egypt, art of him(her,it) and Egyptian, mythology.

The sources of the Nile remained for a long time unknown, and it was necessary to wait for the  XIX-th century so that the whole class(course) of the river is recognized.

Among the western explorers who crossed(went through) the region of the Nile represent the British John Speke, whom reached the lake Victoria in 1858 and in Ripon's falls in 1862, and Samuel White, of whom the first investigation of the lake Albert dates 1864, the German Georg August Schweinfurth, who investigated between 1868 and 1871 the western tributaries of the White Nile, and the Américano-Britannique Henry Stanley. In 1875, Stanley investigated the lake Victoria in sailboat. In 1889, it(he) crossed(went through) Semliki to reach(affect) the lake Edward and the chains(channels) of Ruwenzori.

Assouan, the first dam builds on the Nile, dates 1902. It(he) was heightened in 1936. In the Assouan's high dam, built in 1971, is one of the biggest lakes of restraint of the world, the lake Nasser. One of the negative aspects of this dam is that it(he) reduces considerably the stream of alluviums of the lower Nile, while the fertility of the plains of the region depends on it. Makwar's dam, today Sennar's dam, was built on the Blue Nile in the South of Khartum after the First World war, to keep(preserve) the water of stocking intended for the cotton plantations of the plain of Sudan. A dam was built to Jabal Awliya, on the White Nile, to the South of Khartum, in 1937. In Egypt, the lower class(course) of the Nile became a tourist very important centre, which connects among them all the big historic sites of antique Egypt.

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