Cathedral of Amiens

 

The time which it makes(does) at the moment on the department of Aisne.

 

Physical aspects---administrative division---agriculture---industries---services

Picardy ( administrative region), administrative region of the North of France, covering the former(old) provinces of Beauvaisis, Soissonnais, as well as is it of the country of Bray and a part(party) of Champagne.

Surface: 19 528 km2!; population 1990 ) 1.810.887 inhabitants

Physical aspects

With its vast chalky trays, cut by green and widely flared valleys, Picardy is the continuation of the Parisian Pond in the South, opening in the North on Artois and, beyond, on plains of Flanders. Altogether, with the exception of the coastal plain of Marquenterre, established(constituted) by river valleys, the picard landscape is that of a tabular relief weakly wavy. Largely established(constituted) by limestone, dating the Cretaceous, the trays of Picardy are covered with a thick coat of extremely fertile silt. The toponymy recognizes this quality of the earth(ground) with the patronymic Santerre, which indicates(appoints) the part(party) be of the region, deriving from Latin Sanaa Terra, "! Good earth(ground)! ". In the part(party) West of the region, however, the muddy coat was locally swept(annihilated) by the erosion. It is Ponthieu, poorer agricultural space. Some valleys cut these picards trays: those that crosses(goes through) the Somme and Authie. The weak lowering up to the sea explains the nonchalance of the class(course) of these rivers, which scatter in ponds and swamp, giving birth to hortillonnages, market garden gardens bounded by canals situated in the suburb of Amiens, Abbeville or Péronne. In the South of the region, in Beauvaisis, the chalky tray(plateau) is cut by her(it) "! Buttonhole! " Of the country of Bray, established(constituted) by marl of Jurassic time and of clay of Cretaceous time. These clayey capital, favorable to the breeding, allow the country of Bray to offer a face of hedged farmland in this region of cuestas surrounding a directed southeast fault - northwest. More in the South, the landscape is already that of the Ile-de-France and the Valois, formed by sedimentary grounds of origin service industry. The relief is more hilly, because of the presence of the Oise and its tributaries. The picard coast is, for the main part, consisted of a lively cliff, in white chalk streaked with flint. In bay(berry) of the Somme, however, the cliff opens to form a maritime plain called Marquenterre ("! Sea which is in earth(ground)! ") Being conquered on the sea following the creation of an offshore bar established(constituted) by fragments torn away(extracted) from the Norman rib(coast), brought by the common(current) sailors. In some kilometres inside lands, it is possible to see the plan of a dead cliff which establishes(constitutes) the coast primitive picard in this zone.

The picard climate is moderate, but subjected to the western come maritime influences. The annual average precipitation are included between 600 and 800 mm, except on the part(party) West of the region, the most exposed(explained) to the maritime winds, where they are situated between 800 and 1 200 mm a year. On the other hand, this zone possesses the sweetest temperatures in winter, with an average in January about 5! °C, while the rest of the region registers(records) an average temperature in January of 3! °C, for 70 days of frosts(jellies) a year, against about forty only in the western littoral part(party). The winter in Picardy varies the moderate and wet periods with drier, but also colder periods. The summery temperatures are relatively uniform on the whole regional space, with an average in July of 17! °C about. The summer picard made succeed one another the rainy and fresh(cool) times with warm and dry times, as in the rest of the Parisian Pond to which Picardy belongs.


Administrative division

The Region Picardy groups together(includes) three departments: the Oise, the Somme and Aisne. The administrative centre is Amiens, also administrative centre of the department of the Somme. This one has also three administrative centres of district: Abbeville, Montdidier and Péronne. The Oise has for administrative centre Beauvais and for administrative centres of district Clermont, Compiègne and Senlis. The administrative centre of Aisne is Laon. This department possesses four administrative centres of district: Château-Thierry, Saint-Quentin, Soissons and Vervins. The region forms the Academy of Amiens and belongs to the II-th military region. The court of Appeal is Amiens. Between Nord-Pas-de-Calais and Ile-de-France, Picardy is a rural earth(ground), but it also possesses a long industrial tradition.


Agriculture

The primary sector remains very present because it represents 8,5 p. 100 of the regional employment(use) against 6,8 p. 100 for the national average. The picarde agriculture is, in general , an agriculture specialized in the cultures mechanized in high return which contributes for the three quarters to the value of the regional agricultural production. Sign of this orientation, the surface averages picardes exploitations is superior to 50 ha. The agricultural picard landscape is that of the immense opened fields. Picardy occupies so the first national row(rank) for the sugar beet with an annual production superior to 10 million tons. In the oriental part(party) of the region, which corresponds to the department of Aisne, Vermandois and Santerre are the domain privileged by these big sugar exploitations. It is there that one finds the big sweets and the distilleries loaded with transforming the production. Nevertheless, there is also a strong sugar production in Beauvaisis. First national row(rank) still for the barley and the potato with an annual production superior to 2 million tons, the region is also well placed for cereal, in particular in its Southern part(party), in the contact of the Ile-de-France and the Vexin. Bocager, the country of Bray practises the polyculture combining(organizing) bovine breeding and cereal. The prosperity of this mechanized and specialized agriculture is translated by a regional gross income near 1,8 times superior to the national average.


Industry

The picarde industry offers a less smiling face. Industrialized from the XIX-th century, Picardy has to, as nearby Nord-Pas-de-Calais, face the problems bound(connected) to the restructuralisation of its traditional activities and to the difficult development of new industries. The branch of industry uses(employs) 29,2 p. 100 of the regional assets(active persons) against 22,9 p. 100 for the national average. The textile(textile industry), the smokestack industry of the North of the picarde region, practically disappeared. A long time, the manufacturers picards textiles(textile industries) combined(organized) preparation in workshop(studio) and "! Domestic system! " Preparation at the farmers who received the raw material to transform her(it) during injury time of the farm. This system, also used by the boutonnerie and the transformation of mother-of-pearl, the other regional traditional activity, disappeared today. It does not remain any more, to show some size(greatness) textile(textile industry) picarde, that some small and medium-sized companies which abandoned "! Domestic system! ". The sector of mother-of-pearl and the boutonnerie, concentrated in the South of the region, around Méru, practically disappeared during the Glorious Thirty, under the influence of the competition of the productions in synthetic materials. The importance and the wealth of the agriculture picarde justify the existence of a strong farm-produce sector. Of this sector raise(find) naturally the sweets of Vermandois or Bresles in the Oise, the canning factories of Santerre, Estrée, Rosières or Péronne. There is also a very active sector of transformation of the potato with several factories of manufacture of puree and deep-frozen products, as to Vicq-sur-Aisne. Besides, in this region, which(who) has a long tradition of mechanical engineering and metal industry of transformation, the sector of the agricultural material is represented well, in particular in Amiens, Saint-Quentin and Beauvais, where became established the Massey-Ferguson multinational. Beauvais also welcomes an important activity of motor equipment, the other regional speciality. Indeed, Montataire shelters a factory of manufacture of commercial vehicles associating both big national motor groups. However, this establishment knows considerable difficulties and its short-term survival does not seem assured(insured). The other presence of the motor sector: the manufacture of tyres(pneumatics) in Amiens. The South of the region, in particular in the department of the Oise, to Beauvais, Compiègne and Creil, saw developing pharmaceutical activities and parachimiques, notably manufacture of plastics and cleaners, but also flavors.


Services

The picard service sector uses(employs) 56,2 p. 100 of the regional assets(active persons) against 63,1 p. 100 for the national average. This relative weakness explains itself by the absence of tradition service industry in the region, The region put today on the development of the green tourism, notably by valuing its very rich historic patrimony. Nevertheless, it remains a region of passage, where the duration of the stays is reduced by the nearness of Paris. From this point of view, Picardy sees there an obstacle for the development of activities service industries, as far as the line TGV towards the tunnel under La Manche and Great Britain avoids the regional capital and, in spite of the intense mobilization of all Picardy at the time of the elaboration of the line, offers as stop(ruling) in Picardy only a station in the countryside, in about fifty kilometres from Amiens and from Saint-Quentin. The region is better endowed in motorway infrastructures with, in particular, the axis A 1 which joins Paris and Calais, and axis A 16, intended to connect Paris and Amiens. Picardes cities stay largely under the Parisian influence, in particular in the South of the region where a significant part of assets(active persons) are going to work in Region Ile-de-France. In the North of Picardy, it is the Region Nord-Pas-de-Calais that exercises a strong attraction, in particular the metropolis of Lille. This situation harms in the picarde capital, Amiens, which has difficulty in exploiting its role of regional metropolis and the influence of which is badly relieved by average cities as Beauvais, Soissons or Château-Thierry, of which some people would like to settle(arise) in rivals of the town amiénoise. Within three picards departments, the administrative centres of district also have difficulty in exercising completely their influence. So, in the Oise, the main conglomerations, Beauvais, Compiègne and Creil, are of a relatively comparable demographic weight and tend to enter competition the some with the others. Nevertheless, the Region Picardy hears valuing its network of average cities by endowing them with functions(offices) service industries elaborated. Amiens has so an university and a college of business which(who) try to counterbalance the attraction of universities and Parisian establishments. Several average cities as Beauvais endowed of technological university establishments, and Compiègne, précuseur in the material(subject), possesses even a real campus on which is installed(settled) the university of technology of Compiègne, the reappointed establishment which distributes high-level formings(trainings). The city tries to value this trump card by inciting the companies of technology to become established near this institution which also shelters successful research laboratories. For several years, Picardy tries to transform the nearness of the Parisian conglomeration into advantage. She suggests so attracting(enticing) industrial investors and households(houseworks) by insisting on her quality advantages of life which harmonize with this nearness. Besides, the picarde region counts on the development of the aéroportuaire zone of Roissy a lot. Indeed, the airport, situated in Ile-de-France, is nearby of Picardy, and its area of development tends more and more to widen northward, in picard earth(ground)

 

  Return reception--- {Bohain}